Eastern Nordic Indo-European cousins, speaking an east-Iranic language. They were pastoral-nomads, horseback-borne archers. In fact the very name "Skythian" from 'skyth' (Greek, 'σκυθ-','skut-' is cognate to our Germanic verb "shoot", from OE, 'scéotan', Swed., 'skjuta', Norw., 'skyte', Germ., ´schiessen'. The Skythians were called 'shooters' for the famed archery-skill.

Sunday, April 15, 2012

An unattested, unknown Indo-European sub-group spoken by the Belgae..?


Published, images added, captions written and annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

(websource: the "Rokus Blog")
Important shifts in the concept of Celtic origin are taking place. A new book edited by Professors Cunliffe and Koch is due out in June and announced by Oxbow Books thus:
The Celtic from the West proposal was first presented in Barry Cunliffe’s Facing the Ocean (2001) and has subsequently found resonance amongst geneticists. It provoked controversy on the part of some linguists, though is significantly in accord with John Koch’s findings in Tartessian (2009).
The present collection is intended to pursue the question further in order to determine whether this earlier and more westerly starting point might now be developed as a more robust foundation for Celtic studies.
This new approach turns the focus away from a Central-European origin of Celts and instead advocate an Atlantic

Saturday, April 14, 2012

"The Celtic Origin Revised: the Atlantic View and the Nordwestblock Blues"


Published, images added, captions written and annotations (in red) by Kenneth S. Doig

(websource: the "Rokus Blog")
Important shifts in the concept of Celtic origin are taking place. A new book edited by Professors Cunliffe and Koch is due out in June and announced by Oxbow Books thus:
 
The Celtic from the West proposal was first presented in Barry Cunliffe’s Facing the Ocean (2001) and has subsequently found resonance amongst geneticists. It provoked controversy on the part of some linguists, though is significantly in accord with John Koch’s findings in Tartessian (2009).

Sunday, September 4, 2011

WHO ARE THE GERMANIC PEOPLES?

TEUTONIC/GERMANIC TRIBES c, 50 AD
GMC PROTOHOMELAND WAS DENMARK
& SOUTHERN SWEDEN


This website is incorrect about the etymology "German". Let there be no doubts.
Published by Kenneth S. Doig


(from an article on www.odinsvolk.ca)


WHO ARE THE GERMANIC PEOPLES?The Germanic peoples are the great ethnic group of ancient Europe, a basic stock in the composition of the modern peoples of England, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Northern Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North and central France, North and Lowland Scotland.

GENERAL OVERVIEW : ANGLO-SAXON (WEST-SAXON) LANGUAGE, GRAMMAR


PUBLISHED, FROMATTED, IMAGES ADDED & CAPTIONS WRITTEN BY KENNETH S. DOIG

ANGLO-SAXON

(From Wikipedia)

GERMANIC INVASION-ROUTES c. 450 AD: ALSO NOT MENTIONED
HERE, ALONG WITH THE ANGLES, SAXONS & JUTES, CAME
OTHER TEUTONIC TRIBES IN SMALLER NUMBERS SUCH AS:
FRISIANS, FRANKS & SWEDES

Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc
Spoken in England (except the extreme southwest and northwest), parts of modern Scotland south-east of the Forth, and the eastern fringes of modern Wales.
Language extinction mostly developed intoMiddle English by the 13th century.

Thursday, August 4, 2011

Race, Languages, and European Peoples (From "The Races of Europe" by Carleton S. Coon PhD

Published by Kenneth S. Doig

In the preceding chapters, we have found it necessary to use archaeology as a system of landmarks by which to chart the movements of human groups and their relationships with one another; this study of race in terms of culture was essential. Ideas are originated, diffused, and conserved by people, and people interbreed. A complete and sudden replacement of one culture by another implies a drastic change of personnel, while a gradual merging of a new culture with an old one must equally imply the survival, at least in part, of the older population. By following these rules we have seen that racial and cultural movements are truly connected, and in no instance in which the skeletal record is adequate could any contradiction be seen.
The subject of this book, however, is race, not culture; although culture in the archaeological sense has been a valuable guide. But once we arrive at the period of history it is no longer necessary to deal exclusively with pots and axes and methods of burial; we may consider people as linguistic and political groups, with known names and ethnic relationships. This has already been possible with the civilized nations of preclassical antiquity, such as the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, and to a certain extent with the Cretans and Hittites, whose writings have so far furnished little or nothing in the way of documentary information, as well as with the early ancestors of the Greeks.
The peoples of central and northern Europe did not learn to write until relatively recent times-in most instances well after the beginning of the Christian era, and in some cases only within the current millennium.
But their identities are in many instances known to us from the writings of the classical geographers and historians, and, in the Dark Ages, from Arabic sources as well. Farther east, in central Asia, the diligence of Chinese historians has been of great assistance. In our study of the early part of the Iron Age, archaeology will still be needed; but by the time of the Christian era it will be possible, for our purposes, to dispense with it almost completely, for in treating fully historical and living cultures, language serves as the best-known, most easily designated, and most convenient framework available for the creation of units suitable for racial study.
Heretofore, we have said little about language. The speech of the peoples with whom we have dealt has been unknown to us in almost all instances. The exceptions are few: The Egyptians, as we well know, spoke a language of the Hamitic stock, with considerable Semitic influence. The Babylonians and Assyrians spoke Semitic, while the Sumerian language, although it can be read, has not yet been related with certainty to any other known tongue or linguistic family.1 During the third millennium, therefore, Hamitic and Semitic languages were used by civilized peoples, as was the still unclassified Sumerian.
Besides these known linguistic groupings found in antiquity, there was another group or rather collection of languages spoken in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor. These included Lydian, and its probable derivative Etruscan; languages of the Caucasus, some of which still survive; a few languages of the Himalayas, such as Burushaski;2 and a whole group in Greece and the Aegean Islands, if not farther west, known to us almost entirely by place names. Cretan may possibly have also belonged to this class of languages.
A school of linguistic experts headed by the late Professor Marr, and championed in the English-speaking world by Dr. Ephraim Speiser,3 would group all of these languages together, including a whole row of extinct tongues stretching around the so-called "Fertile Crescent" from Syria to Elam. The name given this group is "Japhetic," coined to complete, with Hamitic and Semitic, a Biblical trinity. The living examples of this alleged class or family of languages, notably Georgian and Circassian, employ a number of sounds unfamiliar to the Indo-European, Semitic, and Hamitic families, and reminiscent of American Indian languages.
No one denies the wide distribution and importance of these languages in ancient times, but there is serious doubt that they may be united into a single stock comparable to Semitic, Hamitic, Indo-European, etc. It is more likely that this grouping includes a number of independent families, but at present it is too early to say what these may be; especially since most of them are extinct and will never, in all likelihood, be resuscitated. At any rate, it is probable that some of the seafarers of the Late Neolithic and of the Bronze Age who migrated westward along the Mediterranean to Italy, the Italian islands, and Spain, and thence to Britain, France, and Scandinavia, spoke languages derived from the eastern Mediterranean. It is furthermore possible that modern Basque may be the only survivor of this linguistic migration; but this suggested relationship, referred to in the preceding chapter, must by no means be accepted as a certainty.
MAP 4: Iron Age Races of Europe, before Huns and Turks

We do not know the languages of the Early Neolithic swineherds who introduced a food-producing economy to Spain and western Europe, including the lake shores of Switzerland, and we are not likely to find out. We do not, furthermore, know what medium the Danubians who performed the same pioneering function in another quarter used. The speech of the Corded people is equally unknown, and the old idioms of the Palaeolithic survivors in the far north, of the midden dwellers of Denmark, and of the Azilian survivors in Switzerland, are far past reconstruction. In Europe we must start as late as the Iron Age in our attempt to allocate languages to cultural or racial groups.


Today the members of the white race speak languages of the following linguistic stocks: Semitic, Hamitic, Indo-European, Ural-Altaic,4 Euskanan (Basque), and various languages of the Caucasus and Himalayas, which it would be futile to attempt to classify here. At present the two most important are Indo-European and Ural-Altaic. Yet in antiquity, while civilization of the first water was in the hands of Hamites, Semites, and Sumerians, all Indo-European and probably most Ural-Altaic speakers, if they existed as such, were illiterate barbarians.
Indo-European languages are spoken by more white people today than are all of the others put together, several times over. People speaking Indo-European languages have monopolized the cultural advances of modern science; but it must not be forgotten that, as late as the Middle Ages, Semites, Turks, and Chinese were more advanced than the majority of Indo-European speakers. The linguists tell us that the Indo-European speakers did not initially domesticate one useful animal, or one cultivated plant.


Linguistically, Indo-European is probably a relatively recent phenomenon, which arose after animals had been tamed and plants cultivated. The latest researches find it to be a derivative of an initially mixed language, whose principal elements were Uralic, called element A, and some undesignated element B which was probably one of the eastern Mediterranean or Caucasic languages.5 The plants and animals on which the economy of the early Indo-European speakers was based were referred to in words derived mainly from element B. Copper and gold were known, and the words for these commodities come from Mesopotamia.
Somewhere in the plains of southern Russia or central Asia, the blending of languages took place which resulted in Indo-European speech. This product in turn spread and split, and was further differentiated by mixture with the languages of peoples upon whom it, in one form or other, was imposed. Some of the present Indo-European languages, in addition to these later accretions from non-Indo-European tongues, contain more of the A element than others, which contain more of the B. The unity of the original "Indo-Europeans," could not have been of long duration, if it was ever complete.
They split, perhaps very early, into two groups, designated by the treatment of the palatal explosives of the K group. Among one branch, the so-called Satem, this was changed to spirants (S); the other, called Centum, preserved the original form of this sound, which also prevailed in the A or Finno-Ugric element. Centum speech became divided into a number of branches, of which surviving members are Keltic, Germanic, Italic, and Hellenic; Satem includes Slavic and Baltic, Armenian, Indic and Iranian, and probably Thracian,6 in the sense of a contributing factor in modern Albanian. Others, such as Ligurian, Illyrian7 and Tokharian B (all Centum), have long been extinct.


On the whole, the Indo-European languages have been spoken by people who combined agriculture with animal husbandry, who were organized into a patrilineal society with at least the germs of a differential class system, and who worshipped an Olympian pantheon of Gods. The initial formation of the Indo-European linguistic stock by blending does not antedate the age of metal; the common culture of the earliest Indo-European speakers, insofar as it existed as a unit, had much in common with those of both the peoples of the Aegean and Asia Minor on the one hand, and of central Asia on the other. The mythology of the Altaian Turks, for example, is so nearly identical with that of the early Scandinavians that some close association in the not far distant past is necessary.8 Furthermore, the ritual of the horse sacrifice9 is so integral a part of the religion of both Indo-European and Altaic-speaking peoples that recent diffusion alone cannot explain the identity.
Indo-European languages as we know them must have come from easternmost Europe or western central Asia at no very remote time. Their spread over most of Europe, and subsequently over the western hemisphere, Australia, and large segments of Asia in which they were originally not at home, is part of a general movement of expansion in which both race and culture have played their roles. Yet we cannot with complete assurance associate any one culture earlier than the Iron Age with any specific form of Indo-European speech. Although Homer's heroes fought with bronze weapons, we are not sure exactly when and by what agency the pre-Dorian Greek dialects arrived in the racially and culturally composite Hellenic world; nor do we know exactly who brought Na~ili speech to Asia Minor.
One whole school of European archaeologists and linguists associates the Corded people with the diffusion of Indo-European speech.10 Nehring, in a recent work of great detail and authority, would make the Danubians the original Indo-Europeans.11 He would explain the Altaic cultural similarities by dividing the Indo-European culture and vocabulary into two elements: (1) an early horizon in which the ox was the most important domestic animal economically, and agriculture of primary importance; (2) a later horizon of indirect Altaic inspiration, in which the horse was supreme and agriculture secondary.
At the moment the evidence is growing that certain forms of Indo-European speech were very ancient in more than one part of the Mediterranean basin. Whatmough has definitely identified Ligurian as Indo-European,12 and Ligurian was very old in Italy and in the Rhóne Valley. Sapir sees in Philistine a form of Indo-European;13 and would make the ark of the covenant a spirit-placing on wheels like the portable wicker shrines of the later Mongols. But neither of these identifications need carry us back earlier in history than the time of the troubles in Mesopotamia at the end of the third millennium, when northerners caused restless nights to the Babylonian kings, and the Hyksos invaded Egypt. It was after these disturbances that the chariot first appeared in Libya; hence, the first southward burst of horse-nomads may have affected both shores of the Mediterranean, whatever languages they brought with them.


The dates of the earliest certain appearances of Indo-European are about 1900 B.C., when the Našili dialect which was incorporated into Hittite entered Asia Minor. The earliest Greek probably entered Hellas at the same time. About 1400 B.C., the ancestors of the Aryans of India were crossing the passes of Afghanistan into the Indus Valley, and some six hundred years later, their relatives the Iranian ancestors were founding the Persian empire. From roughly 1000-900 B.C. onward, as the earliest possible date, the bearers of the Hallstatt culture in central Europe were spreading the use of iron, and the Hallstatt people almost certainly spoke lllyrian. In Italy, the Villanova people were without reasonable doubt diffusing Italic speech in the peninsula, while some forms of Illyrian were introduced by a number of peoples, among whom were probably the Veneti.
All of these Indo-European speakers, from 900 B.C. onward, were associated in some way with the diffusion of iron metallurgy from a center which is still to be determined. The most commonly proposed location is northern Anatolia and the Caucasus;14 whatever the history of the diffusion of Indo-European speech in the past, with the advent of iron, certain branches of it seem to have spread with great rapidity. The Hallstatt period in central Europe was followed by that of La Tène, the Late Iron Age, which lasted from 500 B.c. to the time of Christ; and this was the period of Keltic expansion and Keltic dominance, earlier than but parallel to the spread of Roman power and of Latin in the Mediterranean. After the phenomenal and immoderate scattering of the Kelts, who were destined to survive linguistically only on the western European fringe, far from their center of dispersion - the Germanic peoples began, in the days of the Roman empire, their swelling and pushing, from Denmark, southern Sweden, northern Germany, Holland, and the Norwegian coast. This reached every country in Europe and also North Africa. Unlike the spread of the Kelts, it was to achieve, in many quarters, linguistic and cultural permanence.


The expansion of the Germans was followed by that of the Slavs, the youngest of the Indo-Europeans to effervesce in an orgy of numerical increase and of migration. This took place in full historic time, in the seventh and eighth centuries of our era, but, unfortunately, the light of history was dim in the part of Europe in which most of their expansion occurred.


The foregoing digression into the field of comparative linguistics has a direct bearing upon the problem of the racial complexion of present day Europe. While it is not our primary purpose to discover the physical type or types of the undivided Indo-European ancestors, if they were ever actually undivided, it will be possible to find the common racial denominator, homogeneous or mixed, of the Iron Age spreaders of Indo-European speech and the accompanying cultures over Europe and parts of Asia. Once we have isolated the common factor, we may hope to locate its position in the roster of racial types previously known to us - for it must have been some type or types with which we have already become familiar in the earlier part of our study, and not a deus ex machina conjured up by linguists and politicians.

Notes:
1 The supposed kinship between Sumerian and Finno-Ugrian cannot easily be evaluated, owing largely to the gap of over three millennia between the known forms of each. Both groups are agglutinative, but the grammatical structure of Sumerian also has ver bal prefixes, often with personal tone, unknown in modern Finnic or Ugric. Sumerian, like modern Finnic, Ugric, and Turkish, seems to have vowel harmony. In vocabulary there are few similarities. On the whole, this relationship cannot at the moment be proved or disproved. -Personal communication from Dr. J. Dyneley Prince. See also the Prolegomena of his Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon.
2 Lorimer, D. L., The Burushaski Language.
3 Speiser, E., Mesopotamian Origins.
4 Concerning the question of Ural-Altaic unity, see Chapter VII, p. 223.
5 Uhlenbeck (AA '37) refuses to identify element B, or to call it specifically Caucasic. Nehring, however (Nehring, A., WBKL, vol. 4,1936, pp. 7-229), feels certain that B is one of the group of which Caucasic may form a part.
6 Lowman, G. S., Language, vol. 8, 1932, p. 271.
7 This may also be a factor in modern Albanian.
8 Chadwick, Nora K., JRAI, vol. 66, 1936, pp. 75-112.
9 Koppers, W., Anthropos, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 1073-1089; WBKL, vol. 4, 1936, pp 279-411.
10 That headed by Kossinna, who would likewise derive Indo-European speech from the Baltic. See Kossinna, G., Ursprung und Verbreitung der Germanen.
11 Nehring, A., WBKL, vol. 4, 1936.
12 Whatmough, J., The Foundations of Roman Italy.
13 Sapir, K, JAOS, vol. 56, 1935, #2, pp. 272-281.
14 Wainwright, G., Antiquity, vol. 10, 1936, pp. 5-24.  source

Wednesday, August 3, 2011

Speculation and error correction in Palaeolinguistics: Interesting tidbits Published by Kenneth S. Doig (Note- I did not write this and I know it's not well-punctuated, edited or formatted, i.e., it messy. But it's good, full of very interesting facts and theories on Germanic, Celtic, Norwestblock and Indo-European languages, peoples, substrata, etc. K.S. Doig) Speculation and error correction in Palaeolinguistics; file B - further information See the essay of this title on this website for the main arguments. Numbers relate to points in the main essay. 3: Northumbrian and Celtic The extended Northumbrian manuscripts post-date the arrival of the Vikings by a few generations, so the 'code breakdown' they show could connect to Scandinavian influence rather than Celtic. Without a cluster of Celtic loanwords to back it up the theory of Celtic substrate influence completely reshaping Northern English looks like a loser. In Nh., wesa wosa is the word for 'to be'. This shows the loss of final n. The link with Celtic looks rather unlikely to me as the loss of -n is also found in Frisian and North Germanic, so that the evolution of the morphology looks simply like an isostatic adaptation to the primary event of losing the n. There was presumably no Celtic substrate in Sweden or Frisia. In manuscripts, the form biothun alternates with biothu because the n comes and goes. A study of Fueckel's monograph (Anglia, 1901) on one Northumbrian text suggests to me that there is an amount of 'morphological collapse' in Northumbrian and that the question of a distinctive linguistic arrangement north of the Humber is quite possible. The point of departure may be the "loss of -n in unstressed syllables" which obviously destroys a large swathe of the inherited Germanic endings both nominal and verbal. I would appreciate an evaluation of this in the round, given that Fueckel’s treatment is monographic and makes no observations at all on system or even on date. He is very thorough and we do notice: a words with no endings at all, i.e. cases no longer being shown by sounds b loss and simplification of endings (which had been based on the vanished ns) c alternations of forms e.g. with -n and with the -n missing (loss of interest in case endings?) d loss of distinction between different vowels (once the -n has disappeared) which F interprets as them being 'Murmellaute' so that the ending is only an indistinct vowel and again there is levelling of quite different endings But what does this mean? a bad scribe? a stable spoken language in which realisations of words varied from minute to minute? a system in decay? degradation by copying of an older text which was much more consistent? It is regrettable not to know. It may well be that the Vikings destroyed all the manuscripts in the North as part of their cultural programme, but in any case the lack of Northumbrian writings predating the Vikings makes the whole ‘Celtic substrate’ thing shaky and speculative. The Finns add English dialect material, names of places and rivers etc., to increase the amount of Celtic loanwords. They do not seem to realise that if you double the sample you have to double the amount of positive results, or else you have not increased the percentage share of loanwords found. Much of their effort seems futile. The revisits to words of very shaky and questionable etymology points in the same way. Five very bad etymologies have as much weight as one good one. The conclusion is that they are biased, they prefer one conclusion to all others and are selecting material which fits in with it. I find this problematic. Meanwhile the presentation of evidence is plodding and very often frustrating and unpersuasive. 3a The legacy position is that there is no trace in English dialects of speech variations in the pre-migration homeland. However, we find that the loss of -n in the infinitive is found in Scandinavia, in Frisia, and also in the northern dialect in England. Obviously Scandinavia is, equally, to the north of the core Germanic speech area. So the idea that Northumbrian has no connection with Scandinavia and that its Anglian settlers did not come from regions further north than the havens from which the migrants to southern England shipped out has some puzzling aspects and may repay a further probe. Indeed, knowledge of early Scandinavian may give the insights needed to unravel the mysteries of Northumbrian language history. 3b Tolkien suggested that Northumbrian bioðun/ biðun (3 Ps Pl of the present of the verb 'to be') was derived from Welsh byddant (the same, although it is a future/habitual tense). This is very interesting. but meaningless in isolation. This is one of the earlier 'breakthroughs' in which Celtic material was detected in Old English. The resemblance is closest in Northumbrian but the Nh is very close to the forms in all other OE dialects. While the paradigm of this verb is chaotic (and so vulnerable to substrate influence?), the b- stem is present in other Gmc languages and is no doubt part of the inherited material (matches f- in Latin fui etc.) 3c There are a number of features shared by Welsh and Gaelic which are puzzling from a strictly Indo-European point of view. These included "the cluster of features comprised by prepositional pronouns, relative verbal forms, polypersonal verbs and initial mutations". An Internet article by Ratka Matasovic (Zagreb) at http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2007/1568/pdf/celtic_languages_in_contact.pdf describes an Irish Sea Alliance which gave rise to essential aspects of mediaeval Welsh (and Gaelic). Matasovic sees a phase of many bilinguals speaking both languages, making the languages converge. This phase produced features which we see in the modern languages but which were not represent in the ancestral Celtic. They typify ‘Insular Celtic’ (IC). Thus "(1) We know that between ca. 350 A.D. and ca. 550 A.D. there was intensive language contact on the British Isles. British and Goidelic, as already separate languages, as well as Vulgar Latin, and (at least since around 400 A.D. in Eastern Britain) Anglo-Saxon, were all spoken in the British Isles during that period in sociolinguistic conditions favourable to language contact. 2. Common phonological developments show us that those languages influenced each other, and there is ample evidence for widespread bilingualism, perhaps even plurilingualism during that period. 3. Several features shared by the IC languages, but absent in other forms of Celtic and European languages, cannot, for reasons of relative chronology, be attributed to Proto-Insular Celtic." (Ranko Matasovic, Insular Celtic as a Language Area, 2007) Thus, Welsh and Gaelic may have been closer together in 700 AD than they were in 0 AD. Also, the Celtic of the Continent may have had none of the features which we are familiar with as linking Gaelic and Welsh. (By Alliance linguists mean a group of different languages which are geographically close and which converge by borrowing due to bilingualism. It translates the German word Sprachbund and the classic case is the Balkan languages. It is the opposite of 'descent' or 'genealogy'.) Matasovic's brilliant paper does not give every detail, but we can take it that the geographical site where this mixing took place would have been along the Atlantic seaboard of Britain: Western Scotland, Cumbria, Lancashire, Wales, and the shores of the Bristol Channel. Gaelic immigration into those areas is very well attested. He says "In Early Britain and Ireland, after the withdrawal of the Roman legions in 410 A.D., the dominant type of bilingualism seems to have been one in which at least Goidelic and British were idioms of roughly equal status. Code-switching must have been frequent, as well as exogamy, with children growing up in mixed marriages speaking early forms of British and Goidelic, and in some cases also Vulgar Latin, equally fluently. This type of situation facilitated the spread of structural features, but not necessarily of lexical material. There is a vast amount of evidence for the presence of Goidelic-speaking communities in Britain in the period ca. 400-600 A.D. Those communities thrived chiefly in Wales, and, to a lesser extent, in Cornwall, i.e. precisely in those areas where the British languages survived the expansion of Anglo-Saxon. The evidence in question consists of historical records pointing to the immigration of Déisi, an Irish tribe, to Wales, which was facilitated by the weakening of the Roman military presence there in the late 4th century. There are also historical records confirming the existence of Irish kingdoms in Dyfed and Gwynedd in the Early Middle Ages, and the presence of Goidelic-speaking population in Wales is confirmed by the Ogam stones." He also finds it possible that the mixing took place within Ireland (and that P-Celtic groups preceded Q-Celtic in Ireland). (The Goidel did not thrive 'principally' in Wales if the whole of Northern Scotland was taken over by Gaelic-speaking incomers who are still there.) The postulate of an Irish Sea Alliance points logically to a grand-scale distinction between the Celtic speech of the western seaboard and that of what became England, the centre and east. This area is however the group of most interest to the Finns’ theory. It would follow that the only areas which left any written record of their speech, or had heir languages capable of testifying to their nature, are of diminished relevance to the question of how the Celts submerged by the Anglo-Saxons spoke. 6. Vennemann His version of late prehistory resembles Renfrew's. He takes Hans Krahe's data but demolishing his IE etymologies, he finds in the oldest stratum of river names an 'agglutinating source with initial accent and predominance of A', which is not compatible with IE phonology. He connects these and old place names to Basque. The Vanir are a 'matrilineal' mythical memento of the Semitic element in W Europe, and seaborne. The omnibasque theory is incompatible with Palaeolithic Continuity Theory - it casts the IEs as late migrants evidently from a Mediterranean-Aegean homeland. In the 19th C, linguists noticed that the word 'Basque' corresponded, not only to 'vascones' (now 'Gascon') but also to 'Vosges', the name of a range of hills in Alsace. So they detected a pre-IE language in which something like 'vask/vosk' meant 'mountain' and which called the Basques 'mountain people'. This language was not Basque as the Basques call themselves by a different word, Euskara. So traditional linguistics has no problem with an ancient language being spoken all the way from the Pyrenees to the Rhine, leaving behind a scatter of unusual words. No one really has a problem with this. 'Feasgar' is not an old Gaelic word but a loan from Latin 'vesper'. 'Euskara' does not mean either 'west' or evening', but 'Basque', a people of north-east Spain, so the semantic match with words for 'evening' is bad. I find at least two "west" roots in the accepted IE languages, giving respectively (English) 'west' and 'evening'. I think 'vecher' belongs with 'west, vesper, [W]esperides' and not ucher etc. On the whole, the phonological match is also bad. I am interested by a possible connection between 'Abend, avond, evening' and 'ucher', which would show a velar-labial alternation. http://www.cls.psu.edu/pubs/pubs/LINGUA1158.pdf 5. Renfrew (Polythematic) "These terms describe the lack of stem variation in the verb system to produce optative and subjunctive moods. Other features in the monothematic variant are the lack of separate feminine stems of nouns, the lack of a comparative form of adjectives. In fact, the whole idea of temporal strata of the root language." Other scholars have discussed the resemblances between Hittite and Germanic. The overall shape of the Gmc tense system is similar to that in Hittite and so consistent with being archaic-faithful and so not creolised. This simplicity though represents a shorter features list and so is also compatible with creolisation. Shorter lists may not be structural resemblances - they are also lists of missing resemblances, I would have thought. The patterns which Feist identified as resembling creolisation cross all features of the language and are not easy to dismiss. Clearly the ‘Hittite=German’ theory is one which gets Germanic off the hook of being creolised. If Germanic represents an older and more pristine version of Indo-European than Latin or Sanskrit, that may also serve a political purpose - in salving the egos of German scholars. I think both the proposed solutions to this problem - ‘Germanic is Creole’ and ‘Indo-European went through a phase of complexification after Hittite and Germanic had split off from the core’ - are unprovable and suffer from obvious and unanswerable criticisms. Szemerenyi notes that the consequences of the laryngeal theory have yet to be fully worked out although 100 years had passed since it was first broached by de Saussure. This sheds light on the Renfrew thesis, which after 25 years has not even been fully worked out, let alone evaluated and accepted. Maybe after 90 years it will be finally there with an answer for every language and province, and by that time everyone under 70 will be a follower of Renfrew. I can't categorise this, but the complexity of the evidence seems to be out of all proportion to the number of people qualified to work on it. 8. NWB I am surprised at the lack of any scholarly follow-up to the major work of Kuhn, Hachmann, and Kossack. I have the impression that Kuhn did not wish to draw attention to the links between his work and the earlier work of Gysseling, which reached similar conclusions, so that here we also have a lack of continuity: Gysseling does not use the word Nordwestblock and the efforts of Netherlandish scholars do not connect up with parallel work by German scholars. On a more emotional note, Kuhn was simply a great scholar and it is very emotional to handle the four volumes of his collected papers and ponder his originality and scope. We are bound to ask the question whether the NWB peoples also throve in England - so close for most of history to the Netherlands. I am not aware of any work on this except Pederson, an amateur publishing on the Internet. I found his work interesting but his grasp of Celtic etymology is weak. One would expect the invasion of England by the Belgae, as described by Caesar, to bring linguistic material related to the Nordwestblock, especially if the invasions were in the 4th and 3rd Cs BC and not just in the 1st. I find it very surprising that English scholars have ignored Gysseling’s very credible and careful results on the Belgic language, when the presence of numerous Belgae in England was described already by Caesar and has been accepted by so many archaeologists. It almost looks as if English scholars do not consult work written in Flemish. Yet, the prehistory of the Netherlands must be of great importance to the study of prehistoric England. Another major line of work on non-Germanic words in NW Europe has been pursued by Eric Hamp. He wrote in particular on the 'pig plough apple' group, referring to three words which are not inherited words in Germanic and so must have been borrowed into Germanic from another language. Hamp's work does not upset Kuhn's but also does not seem to connect to it. Hamp if I am right does not try to tie his word history to a particular geographical space or to archaeology. additional questions 11. How in the 4th and 5th Cs do we differentiate the Franks from the Saxons? Some of the evidence I looked at for point 2 indicated that the Anglo-Saxons did not come from 'towards Denmark' but from the Low Countries, especially what is now Belgium. Okken's powerful summary of the language process in the prehistory of the Netherlands opens, not too explicitly, an exciting question. Were the Franks and the Saxons just two successive collective and functional names for an uninterrupted flow of marauders drawn from the whole Germanic hinterland and funnelling into the vulnerable frontier of the wealthy Roman province? If we could go back to 400 AD would we find any difference - of speech or customs - between Franks and Saxons? Or is it more that they acquired different names based on where they settled and aggregated to territorially bound authorities (compounded from arriviste marauders)? Old English is either closest to Frisian, or to Old Saxon, or to Old Dutch. Each opinion has some linguists who support it. The evidence is difficult. We normally expect languages to have descent trees in which splits are both reversed. That is, once Italic has split from Old European (let’s say) it does not flow back and fuse with another Old European language. Any language descended from Italic is closer to any Italic language than it is to Greek or German. So Old English too should belong unambiguously with one of these North Sea languages and not the others. However, the classification idea does not work with dialects within a language: you do not say that Yorkshire dialect is closer to Somerset than to Kentish, that is meaningless. The classification depends on clear splits, where an object A is firmly not-B. The problem with the North Sea languages is that they did not split 'properly' - there was intensive exchange around the North Sea, perhaps as late as the 11th century. Cnut's Danish-English kingdom is just a political expression of the links. (Hans Kuhn wrote very persuasively on these sea-spanning links.) Looking for the affinities is a productive task, or it seems so to me. The disagreements are of great interest. Different tests give different results. Gotthard Lerchner's exceptionally detailed analysis of cognates in Germanic languages around the North Sea starts with about 1300 selected words and then analyses their distribution in these languages in order to give a very close definition of the affinities between those languages. His prized asset is unique pairs, the idea being that where dialects A and B share unique pairs which dialect C does not, then A and B are more closely related to each other than either to C. A word which A and B and C all share is of no geographical value. Lerchner seems to have spent about three years studying a set of 1300 words, a depressing count which also suggests that better results may be reached by pursuing this method, unexhausted because it takes so much time. The dramatic result of Lerchner's work is that Anglo-Saxon is lexically closest to South Netherlands (Flemish, to use another name). That is, the direct ancestors of the English speech community (or, a dominant share of them) were living in Belgium before crossing the Channel. This is unsurprising in geographical terms. The problem (is problem the word?) is that in terms other than lexical English is, notoriously, closer to Frisian, spoken in the northernmost part of Holland (and adjacent parts of Germany and Denmark). This can be supported by good written evidence for Saxon activity along the French Channel coast, known indeed as the 'Saxon shore'. The trouble is that this is where the Franks are supposed to have been living, after their successful invasion of what is now France, at the same time. Either there were good traffic cops in the Dark Ages, and the two streams of people were kept perfectly separate, or else perhaps there was one big flow of barbarians from the interior of Germany, beyond the frontier, and its constituents became either Franks or Saxons on arrival, becoming subjects to states which were known by those names. We can readily separate Saxon and Frankish dialects a few centuries later, when the territory of the Netherlands had a dividing line between Saxon dialects and Franconian ones (this line runs through the eastern part of the Netherlands still today), but that is not clinching proof that such separation was already there in the 4th century. I couldn't find a study of the phonological nature of the hundreds of Frankish words in French (taudis ecurie guerre marechal berge trepigner fanfare etc.) so I do not know if they can be differentiated from early English words. Gamillscheg's classic work Romania germanica lists about 700 Frankish words in French, but Lerchner does not give an analysis of these in terms of 'shared innovations'. They are a bounded and specialised list. O's paper [have forgotten name, sorry] analyses the place-names of the whole north-west Germanic realm and again comes to the conclusion that early English names are closest to the evidence for the Southern Netherlands and Pas de Calais. This matches the zone of Europe where the sea crossing to England is shortest and safest. 12. Frisians The North Sea Germanic classification problem reveals a flaw in the nineteenth century heritage of Germanic linguistics, widely felt to be one of the most solid and thoroughly researched areas of the whole human sciences. This has to do with the relationship of Anglo-Saxon and Dutch. Thus, in Krahe’s standard university textbook of the Germanic languages, (originally 1942?), AS and Frisian are placed together in one branch of West Germanic, with Dutch in a separate branch. However, a quite different classification is defended in works by Klaas Heeroma and Thomas L Markey, where Dutch is shown as closer to English than Frisian. This affinity of English and Frisian is represented as the product of marginal archaic retention, as waves of innovation give an appearance of unity to spatially central dialects, and spatially marginal dialects miss out on the innovations and thus appear closer to each other only by what they omit. It is genuinely surprising that something so basic could have been missed. I suspect that the German scholars who made almost all the discoveries just weren’t very interested in Frisian or Anglo-Saxon. The Frisian/Saxon unity is known as ‘Ingvaeonic’ after a sentence in Tacitus. Heeroma’s classic paper is ‘Wat is Ingvaeoons?’. Secondarily, the new research dissolves the Old Saxon/ Anglo-Saxon bond, so that again Old English is closer to Dutch than to Saxon as spoken in Saxony. The change owes much to a revolutionary 1955 paper by Hans Kuhn. The linguistic gap between Old Saxon and Anglo-Saxon suggests that the first English did not set out from Denmark and Saxony, but from the South Netherlands and the Pas de Calais - the ‘litus saxonicum’. They probably lived in Angeln and Saxony at an earlier date, but migrated to the Flanders area as a staging-post and sailed to England from there. This result provides an explanation of the finding in topic 11 that the Anglo-Saxons came from the south Netherlands and not the North (or from the region between Frisia and Denmark). Heeroma gives powerful reasons for thinking that the whole Netherlands spoke a dialect resembling Frisian in early times, say the 5th and 6th centuries AD; that France, and the Frankish of France, were mighty sources of cultural authority already then (or soon after), and that waves of linguistic influence spread out from there and gradually southernised the Frankish speakers of the regions north of the Meuse; and that this was the origin of the Dutch:Frisian linguistic boundary. Heeroma gives excellent reasons for identifying quasi-Frisian (better: Ingvaeonic) relict features far to the south of what is now Frisia. England, for reasons not hard to identify, was relatively immune to these waves, and so acquired a peripheral and archaic character in relation to the Frankish speech area, which in time left it in the same category as Frisian - although at an earlier stage they were not the most closely related dialects. The end point of the process was the reduction of bilingual Frankia, in the Seine valley (roughly) to a single language, so that the most prestigious Frankish dialect ceased to be spoken and the most influential part of the Frankish realm came to speak French only. Thus this Latin dialect acquired the name of ‘Frankish’. If this whole account is right, then Krahe’s textbook is wrong. This suggests that adjustments to the inherited picture of the relation of English to other Germanic dialects of the North Sea area may yet be possible. Heeroma also thinks that Old Saxon is the closest language to Old English - a finding which contradicts Lerchner’s lexical study. Searching for free material on the Internet, I came across an essay in Frisian which attacked Heeroma very thoroughly on the basis that his views of Ingvaeonic were a derogation from solid Frisian nationalist views. (NB I rely on the summary in English as my Frisian is nugatory.) The writer was hostile to the idea that Frisia was part of the Netherlands. Thus “The linguist Klaas Hanzen Heeroma (1909-1972) wrote several articles in the thirties and fourties in which he attempted to disprove the existence of Frisian substrate outside the province of Fryslân itself, by means of a clever manipulation of the terms East-Ingweoanic and West-Ingweaonic. In this article, I relate the tenacity with which he held on to those views to his language-political background: as a staunch supporter of the “Groot-Nederlandse” (literally “Great Dutch”) movement, he viewed any attempt to establish a regional linguistic standard as a threat to the unity imposed by the Dutch standard language.“ I believe I am right in saying that Heeroma came from one of the eastern provinces around Groningen, where the language of daily intercourse is a kind of German, and that his first language was one of these Low German dialects (known as ‘Saxon’, sassisch). Much of his work has been on Low German and the history of ‘Saxon’ in the Netherlands, and he edited a magazine which was about synthesizing Low German and ‘oosters’ or ‘sassisch’. 'Istvaeonic' is a term for another alliance of Germanic peoples, in this case specifically the Franks and their language, which includes Flemish and Dutch in our terms. I realise this is subjective, but speaking personally I thought Frisian would be easy for me, as a native English speaker who has spent a good deal of time reading Anglo-Saxon. Whereas the Frisian I have looked at has been quite puzzling. I found Dutch much easier to learn. Sample of Frisian: >>Oars as de bêsten fan ‘e ginnerative tradysje hat Heeroma it konseptueel tinken foaral misbrûkt, mei it taalpolitike doel om troch de Fryske taal hinne de Fryske identiteit oan the taasten.<< (Otherwise than the best of the generative tradition Heeroma mainly misused conceptual thought with the linguistic-political goal of affecting Frisian identity through the Frisian language.) Phoenicians Sammes has been taken up by the ‘British Israelite’ movement and there is an extensive body of fringe scholarship on ‘Hebrew-Israelite origins of Europe’, connected to fundamentalist Bible readers. There is a whole literature on supposed Hebrew names in Europe, which is essentially pre-20th century and which I have not explored. ‘Sammes, working on the supposed likeness of British place-names to Phoenician words, proposed a wholesale colonisation complete with language and religious practices. He argued that Welsh was the surviving form of Phoenician spoken by ancient Britons who had been driven into the mountains by Saxon invaders. The book has illustrations of deities and rituals, many associated with Stonehenge, but absolutely no material evidence.’ (from http://static.royalacademy.org.uk/files/antiquaries-optimised-v6-192.pdf ) Cyrus H Gordon is a recent writer on the dissemination of Semitic languages into Europe (and North America). See Gordon, Cyrus H.: Before Columbus: Links Between the Old World and Ancient America; Crown Publishing, New York 1971. One of the sites I found by idle internet searching was owned by the ‘Christian White Nationalist Alliance’. Tim McVeigh supposedly had Christian Identity beliefs. The sensibility is a radically white racist development of British Israelitism: >>Where else in the annals of history is there a record of nearly an entire nation suddenly converging on a wilderness? Only the migrations of the Anglo-Saxon-Gothic tribes into early Europe can fit the picture, and that occurred at the very time that Israel was dispersed and became lost to history. The Angles, Saxons, Celts, and Goths, who overspread Europe, are said to have originated in the region of Medo-Persia, about 700 BC, the very time and place in which the nation of Israel was lost to history. The early Christian church noted a remarkable fact: There was a distinct resemblance between ancient Israel’s religion and that of the early inhabitants of Europe. Early Christian writers used the Latin phrase, “Preparacio Evangelica,” meaning that European mythology constituted a good “preparation for the Gospel.” We now know why Norse mythology, Celtic Druidism, and Greek mythology all bear such striking similarities to the Old Testament -- it’s simply because these peoples were the physical descendants of ancient Israelites who migrated to Europe in ancient times, bringing deep-rooted traces of their religion with them when they came.<< The political line here is straightforwardly to eliminate the Jews from the Bible and its message about history. This is a big issue for certain fundamentalists, who seem to divide into two groups, one which would give Israel any weapons system that exists and one of which wants to write Israel out of the Bible. Other groups who are keen on Sammes still believe that the Earth was created in 4004 BC, in what is a piece of scholarship related to Sammes. Substrates There is no suggestion that the people who spoke the geminate language or any other substrate were psychologically different from the better-known Germanic. The literature does not refer to any substrate of virtuous, egalitarian, unpretentious, low status Geminate People who did not conquer anybody because they did not believe in violence (etc. etc.) This may follow, but actually we are looking at the history of particular words, not people. A hot topic in European archaeology is the nature of the interaction between incoming Neolithic farmers and abiding Mesolithic fisher-hunter-gatherers. While this may have produced linguistic substrates, there is no evidence that the geminate language or any other was spoken by Mesolithic natives, rather than by another farming group. There is no reliable evidence that some of the Mesolithics did not speak an Indo-European language. Contact zones may quite well have included early Germanics coming south and occupying more advanced and richer areas, thus acquiring loanwords from people on a higher cultural plane than they. There are no bases for dating the substrate lendings, but the bilingual contact zone may have persisted for thousands of years. (A comparison might be the English:Welsh linguistic border, which is still there and may already have existed in the 5th century AD.) 10. Erich Roeth. Was Illyrian spoken in Thuringia until the Middle Ages and is there a separate 'basic language' at village level obeying different rules from the German which appears in the written record? This is the theory put forward in Roeth's book Sind wir Germanen? das Ende eines Rätsels (1967; 350 pp.) comment. This is actual nonsense so I am only describing it for fun. Q. Did peasants in Thuringia speak an Illyrian language instead of, or alongside, German, into the late Middle Ages? Answer: no. Roeth's theory claims: -That all linguistic changes in early Europe emanated from the Illyrians of Thuringia as the centre of events - that there was a separate language spoken by the peasants and that you have to master this in order to understand language history; and that in Thuringia there was a double separate language, so that peasants spoke, up until a certain point (around AD 1250?) Illyrian as well as German - that the Illyrian stratum of words bypassed the sound shifts of the past 3000 years or so and were preserved unchanged when recorded any time after 1800 AD - the Illyrian language is characterised by a number of sound shifts identified by Roeth but apparently unknown to all other linguists - many of the 'Illyrian' words have cognates in the Baltic languages (Lithuanian and Latvian) -the ancestors of the Romans came from Thuringia and so what seem to be Latin words in the dialect are really ancient local words which have stayed put and not gone gallivanting round the world I don't have a problem with the idea that a language was spoken in Central Europe before the arrival of Germanic or proto-Germanic. We could call it 'Illyrian'. Illyrian is a name attested only for an area in Yugoslavia and Albania, so I would prefer Venetic for Central Europe, but I concede that a number of books and articles in the 1930s and 1940s familiarised this name for describing cultures in central Europe which included Thuringia. (This was a current led by Julius Pokorny and Hans Krahe which was very powerful for a time but seems to have ebbed away to nothing after a while.) No more am I against the idea that 1/3 of the German vocabulary is non-Indo-European, or that, consequently, the 'alien' words come from other languages -or that these languages were spoken by the people who made up the prehistoric cultures of Central Europe, reasonably including Lausitz, Anjetitz, and so on. The problem is more with the engine room of language history, the processes of validating and checking individual etymologies and connections. Roth is ignoring necessary checks and as a result his findings are globally unconvincing. What he says is fanciful. For example, he finds a word in local field-names which apparently has no equivalent in standard German, traces it back to Illyrian, and claims to know what it means in Illyrian. But he has no source of Illyrian so how does he know what the word means? The field may be named after the person who owned it, the crop it carried, its shape, a bird that nested there, etc. Since he can make up the meaning and the source word, he has unlimited freedom - and his results are not worth serious consideration. We may well reflect that since he makes up the rules as well as playing the games for Illyrian words, he will win every time and other scholars cannot check his results. Thuringia does not have great communications and is not highly urbanised. However, it is part of the North European Plain. Anything rolling through would also roll through Thuringia. It is not a likely place to find an archaic language clinging on. Also, it is in the heart of Germany, the home of the majority of the world's historical linguists since the discipline began. If there were a second language lurking in Thuringian villages then someone would have discovered it. Roth quotes quite a number of scholarly studies on the peasant culture and dialect of the region, the fruit of pervasive academic interest and pride. Yet this amazing discovery remained on the bough for him to pluck. I think this is a work of literature. Roeth was a publisher and too much attuned to what an audience wanted to hear. Lulling you into a dream somewhere between Heimatkunde and proto Green sensibility. An agreeable saunter through a rural landscape where his ancestors lived. Abandoning any intellectual standards is part of the trip. He is animated by a local patriotism which wants history to have happened in Western Thuringia -where, so far as I can make out, nothing of significance ever happened at all. There is a certain piety about his lack of realism. It is interesting that R's words do not coincide with the postulated 'geminates language' at all. This suggests to me that his approach is arbitrary. Roeth was not an academic and this makes it likely that no one has bothered to follow up his results in the 40 years since they were published. This is sad in a way, but after all it could be a completely wasted effort. He wrote a second volume which remained unpublished for many years after his death, but has now come out. 13. the DO auxiliary, a supplement to point 5.This material has been expelled because of being like a remark, 'Once you've read all the medical evidence about the Kennedy assassination you're going to wish you'd never heard of the medical evidence.' Once you've seen all the evidence on the DO auxiliary you’re going to wish you’d never heard of it. Summary.Older English said 'forsakest thou the devil', modern English says 'do you forsake the devil'. The latter construction is known as periphrastic. It wraps up a number of changes as a package. The ‘forsakest’ type is called ‘synthetic’ because the stem and the tense marker are ‘put together’ in the same word. In English, the word 'do' is very frequent and carries out an undifferentiated function: don’t you do that. I didn't do it. Did you do it or not. It is an 'auxiliary' verb, it supports other verbs. As 'it' the pronoun can stand for any inanimate noun, so 'do' is a 'pro-verb' that can stand for any verb (except be). The thesis of the 3 Deadly Finns is that the spread of periphrastic DO is due to 'Celtic speech habits' among populations in England which had given up Celtic speech roughly half a millennium earlier. comment (a) The following features are organically linked: -periphrasis -auxiliaries -reduction of morphology and concentration of it so that only auxiliary verbs are conjugated -reduction of all other verbs to unchanging verb-nouns There are quantitative, I mean within the mathematics which links information and verbal form, links between loss of word endings and the rise of auxiliaries as markers of tense and mood. It would be an error to deal with them separately. If the tense marker leaves the 'meaningful' verb it has to re-emerge in the auxiliary and not just exit from the sentence. Thus a cluster of innovations may be structurally linked - and this mandatory innovation may not be either borrowing or inheritance. The rise of undifferentiated, unmarked, verb-nouns, implies a sweeping replacement of conjugation by periphrasis in which auxiliaries become the only marked words alongside neutral verb-nouns, and all tenses or moods are signalled by auxiliaries. This terminal phase has not been reached in English, although reports say that it has been reached in some dialects of Welsh or Gaelic (not in the contemporary written languages). (b) The prevalence of 'do' as an auxiliary reached a peak in the 16th C and declined after that. 16th C texts use it in contexts where we would not use it. (c) Continuous Welsh prose doesn’t turn up until about the 11th C so I am doubtful about getting at 5th C Welsh enough to determine how it influenced an arriving pre-English language. The early poetry is very stylised and does not record a wide range of linguistic situations. The link between celticity and later English only holds if the DO auxiliary is not a feature of related continental Germanic languages. Unfortunately, the unbounded development of a DO auxiliary is a key feature of Dutch and Low German. Examples at http://listserv.linguistlist.org/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0506E&L=lowlands-l&P=R1114 - this is really important. It seems that to find the DO auxiliary you need to look at dialectal forms of NW Germanic languages, actually the ones closest to (putative) pre-boat-Anglo-Saxon. So in modern Low Saxon people say 'so wat dou ik nit maken' 'I don’t do a thing like that'. In a Dutch book on archaeology quoted above I found two sentences: Men mag zelf niet graven, doch de officiele instanties doen het ook niet! (One isn't allowed to dig, but the official bodies also do it not!) and Ik wil dat in het volgende proberen te doen (I will that in what follows try to do) (do stands for another verb meaning 'trail, pursue') Both of these show the 'proverbal' use. If this construction is present in 20th C Dutch, it is hard to argue that it was completely missing from Invasion Period Anglo-Saxon. It would be equally convincing to present its development in English as a 'coastal Sprachbund' process, with England adopting models from the near abroad, relatives of English on the coasts of the North Sea. The idea of a 'linguistic unconscious' is to be fought off wherever possible, but it is difficult to explain why these languages could have been so wary of the DO word in their early stages, separated from each other via migration and politics, and then developed the DO word in parallel and in the same ways. Scholars have neglected plattdeutsch because it has not produced a significant literature. But if you take Germanic as a central theme of linguistics then you have to pay attention to Platt because it may have unique evidence on some processes. We have to consider a counter thesis that the use of auxiliaries was imitated by Welsh speakers from English - the dominant partner in linguistic affairs on the island. If we accept a 'Sprachbund' in Britain then we have to consider the total process. It would follow that modern Welsh may not be purely Romano-British with zero per cent influence from English. If we are seeing a 'North Atlantic language alliance' that includes English, Welsh, Gaelic, Dutch and Low German (at least), we would then ask where the 'leading sector' is, the source of innovations which after a lag are shared ones. This search would normally look for bilingual groups and then in particular for influential bilingual groups. If we are looking for lurking and profound ‘speech habits’ then the simplification of declension & conjugation in 14th century England connects rather directly to the origins of Germanic in circa 1000 BC. The sets of changes bear strong resemblances to each other. The ‘buried’ speech habits would then be rather English than Celtic. I am not persuaded that the whole process can be explained as a Celtic substrate influence spreading over France, Spain, and Britain, or even that the earliest records of Celtic show the use of auxiliaries in a significant way. In fact, the frustrating absence of DO auxiliary, present participle, etc., from early Saxon texts can be paralleled by the puzzling absence of periphrastic constructions, modal auxiliaries, etc., in early Irish and Welsh texts. The ever increasing advance of these features in the last 800 years or so has been a striking feature of Celtic history. That does not mean that the trait was already there in 600 AD - or that it can be demonstrated at all in Celtic remains in Gaul and Spain. One question is whether the use of periphrastic verbs began to advance in Insular Celtic before it began to advance in Old English. In the earliest Welsh texts, it does not seem to be there. In the Mabinogion (late 12th C), where it is present, that seems to be a point of contrast between this prose text and the older poetry. Heinrich Wagner, the Dublin scholar and pupil of Ernst Lewy, was emphatic on the predominance of periphrasis in the late spoken Celtic languages which he studied in the field. He was actually indignant about the difference between spoken and written forms, odd as that may sound. Evidently complex morphology is a feature of the Gaelic literary language and evidently when we get records of spoken Gaelic the morphology is barely present and the use of periphrasis is highly advanced. This situation cannot be projected back to 400 AD. Yet the extensive corpus of written Celtic literature uses synthetic forms for the most part. If modern dialects have lost these complex verb and noun endings, that is a recent development in the history of the languages, and it would be very risky to project it back to 500 AD. We are looking at a linguistic revolution here, not at a literary:spoken opposition. There is a related problem that people assume that everything Celtic is ancient, so that the idea of linguistic revolutions grinds against intuition (or cultural prejudice) even when it looks like the most reasonable explanation of the evidence. Everyone goes to Ireland to find the European past, irrespective of whether it is there. I have done a very modest search in early Celtic texts I have in the house, and the periphrastic line seems to be missing altogether. I have the impression that the condensed manner of ancient poetry excluded the use of periphrastic verbs and so used simple verbs more than prose (and than speech?). This would apply both to Old English and to early Welsh texts. So the DO auxiliary may be stylistically marked as colloquial. This reduces the value of our early texts, which are highly stylised and formal. Old English has laws and poems, Old Welsh has only poems. Prising the story of the DO auxiliary out of this fraught historical context is dubious. My starting point was the claim of the 3 Finns that this development reflected the influence of Celtic speech habits (in monoglot English speakers of circa 800 AD to 1500 AD). To return to this, I don't find the claim proven. (d) There is a whole book, of 1953, on the DO auxiliary in English, by the Swedish scholar Ellegård. He was aware of a supposed link with Celtic, proposed by Preusler in 1938. He investigates it and dismisses it. Incidentally, one can count 5 or 6 books about the DO word. 15. Krahe In the 1950s, Hans Krahe studied a group of elements in river names and decided that their unity preceded the break-up of the Indo-European into separate languages. He called this phase Old European. He assumed that this group was Indo-European in nature, in line with his pre-existing belief that the oldest IE was spoken in Germany and radiated out from there. He moved into this field of study while coming out of the stage of 'Illyrian theory', which found Illyrians everywhere in Europe - a theory which now has no supporters. Beekes points out that IE has no a, and most of the early river name-elements include an a. Also there are non-IE alternations in the oldest material. For this reason, the 'Old European' linguistic stratum cannot have been IE. The Spanish linguist, Antonio Tovar, confirmed this conclusion in his lecture reviewing Krahe. He confirmed Krahe's conclusions about distribution but denied the IE nature of the river names. A similar point was made much earlier by FBJ Kuiper. 'Old European' is a language of unknown affinity. River-names are accepted as being the oldest part of the verbal world in many regions, as words which migrants are always likely to have borrowed from the people already there. Thus many rivers in England have Celtic names, and thus Old European river-names could credibly be words which arriving Indo-Europeans learnt when they got here. This would also imply that there was a pre-Indo-European language of very wide geographical spread. (The 'no a' theory is part of the 'one vowel' theory and is not accepted by every Indo-europeanist.) Krahe is too important to leave out. His work is some of the most stimulating in this field, although 60 years later some corrections are needed. 16. MacKenzie WC MacKenzie in ‘Placenames of Scotland’ (1931) advances the idea that the Germanic component in Scottish was nothing to do with Angles or Saxons but was Frisian. (He excepts the Lothians, i.e. the region which includes Edinburgh and areas south and east of there.) Thus Dumfries means ‘fort of the Frisians’. As stated above, Frisian has no -n in the infinitive and Northumbrian shares this feature. A link between Frisian and the Anglian spoken in Southern Scotland thus exists. MacKenzie is unaware of this. It is plausible that the settlers who landed north of the Humber came from havens further north than those who landed in Kent, Essex, Hampshire, etc., and so that they could have included Frisians and Saxons among other groups. Frisians must have reached England, because there are villages called ‘Frisby’. Frisia is considerably closer to England than to Scotland. He does not feel that he should check his argument by studying old languages or collecting facts of any kind. He expects to triumph simply by force of character. Why should studying language history qualify you to make pronouncements on language history? His whole position is motivated by nationalism, a wish to deny any connection between Scotland and England in the ethnic and linguistic spheres. The undeniable fact is that the Scots language is very similar to the English spoken just south of the border, which has massive resemblances to the English of the rest of England. MacKenzie is simply looking for a way to fly in the face of the facts. The Frisians (who are also Calvinists, which helps) are a convenient intellectual weapon. This is the way things were a hundred years ago. Possibly the Internet is giving this amateur scholarship (or, amateurship) an unheard-of break, so that every bad idea will be published and available to the whole world. There was a whole world, in the 19th and 20th Cs, of books ‘of local interest’ in which amateur scholars, men of leisure without professional training in the disciplines which attracted them, wrote sentimentally on ‘place names’ or whatever and wrote down, while doing so, a wealth of charmingly crackpot ideas. Many of them collected useful information. Some of these ideas trickled on to the ‘New Age’ thing in the 1960s, with ley lines, neo-paganism, and so forth. These books, little read and little considered, were a haven for unconventional ideas. The new Internet world looks like swelling this sector to incredible dimensions. This may be beneficial for an area like the history of the Scots language, something noticeably under-worked and under-developed. However, crackpot ideas are a symptom of underdevelopment and a component of it. In international textbooks on language Scots is simply presented as a variant of English. Haarmann’s standard work does not present Scots as a separate language or offer any count of its speakers. This is intolerable for nationalists to whom the five mile journey from just on the English side of the border to just on the Scottish side is the biggest distance in the whole universe. Scots has to have a separate history. Without this imperative (which as a genetic Scot I understand very well) MacKenzie’s theory would never have been broached. MacKenzie also presents an even more ludicrous theory that Pictish did not die out but simply evolved into Scots. Thus any resemblances between Scots and English would be due to chance coincidence. source


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

(Note- I did not write this and I know it's not well-punctuated, edited or formatted, i.e., it messy. But it's good, full of very interesting facts and theories on Germanic, Celtic, Norwestblock and Indo-European languages, peoples, substrata, etc.
K.S. Doig)


Speculation and error correction in Palaeolinguistics; file B - further information See the essay of this title on this website for the main arguments. Numbers relate to points in the main essay.

3: Northumbrian and Celtic
The extended Northumbrian manuscripts post-date the arrival of the Vikings by a few generations, so the 'code breakdown' they show could connect to Scandinavian influence rather than Celtic. Without a cluster of Celtic loanwords to back it up the theory of Celtic substrate influence completely reshaping Northern English looks like a loser.

In Nh., wesa wosa is the word for 'to be'. This shows the loss of final n.
The link with Celtic looks rather unlikely to me as the loss of -n is also found in Frisian and North Germanic, so that the evolution of the morphology looks simply like an isostatic adaptation to the primary event of losing the n. There was presumably no Celtic substrate in Sweden or Frisia. In manuscripts, the form biothun alternates with biothu because the n comes and goes.

A study of Fueckel's monograph (Anglia
, 1901) on one Northumbrian text suggests to me that there is an amount of 'morphological collapse' in Northumbrian and that the question of a distinctive linguistic arrangement north of the Humber is quite possible. The point of departure may be the "loss of -n in unstressed syllables" which obviously destroys a large swathe of the inherited Germanic endings both nominal and verbal. I would appreciate an evaluation of this in the round, given that Fueckel’s treatment is monographic and makes no observations at all on system or even on date. He is very thorough and we do notice:
a words with no endings at all, i.e. cases no longer being shown by sounds
b loss and simplification of endings (which had been based on the vanished ns)
c alternations of forms e.g. with -n and with the -n missing (loss of interest in case endings?)

d loss of distinction between different vowels (once the -n has disappeared) which F interprets as them being 'Murmellaute' so that the ending is only an indistinct vowel and again there is levelling of quite different endings

But what does this mean? a bad scribe? a stable spoken language in which realisations of words varied from minute to minute? a system in decay? degradation by copying of an older text which was much more consistent? It is regrettable not to know.

It may well be that the Vikings destroyed all the manuscripts in the North as part of their cultural programme, but in any case the lack of Northumbrian writings predating the Vikings makes the whole ‘Celtic substrate’ thing shaky and speculative.

European Kingdoms: Northern Europe-Jutes


Published, edited & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

PrefaceThe account below is based upon semi-history, inaccurate histories and legend. Some or even all of it might be accurate, but much new archaeological, DNA evidence have change the generally accepted picture, or at least, it has made people to question or reconsider their historical beliefs on Northwest Europe. There are so many theories going around. The most absurd is the "Proto-English theory that almost all of eastern Britain had been long Germanic-speaking before the accepted, traditional invasions of Hengist and Horsa c. 449 AD and even pre-dating Roman Britain by about 500 years. The proponents of this theory never state how the pre-Anglo-Saxon and the pre-Scandi-Anglian languages ever got to Britain. After much reading this is my current conclusion in a nutshell regarding the Anglo-Saxons. Dolichocephalic Indo-Europeans of the depigmented Mediterranean race arrive in the area (c. 2000 BC) of the sparsely populate southern Scandinavia. They mixed with very similar-looking blond, non-IE peoples. These people were members of the upper-paleolithic aboriginal races to NW Europe, namely the Bruenn, and Borreby. These people were incorporated into the pre-Germanic IE society. The least intermixing occurred in south-central to central Sweden and the eastern valleys north of Oslo, where the vast majority of the population is still virtually identical to the ancient, Iron-Age, Indo-European/Germanic Nordic. As one moves away from the central Swedish core, we see more admixtures, stabilized hybrid races, like the Trønder race in western Norway, from intermarriage of the IE (Hallstatt) Nordic with the non-IE Bruenn race. To the untrained, these people look Nordic, and in my opinion have been Germanic for over 3000 years. The same with the other Hybrids and the unmixed Borreby race in SW Norway, Denmark, Northern Germany, etc. I believe that this Indo-European became recognizedly Germanic c. 500 BC, and the phonology was dranatically altered by the aforementions peoples unknown speech/es. I believe that the number in the Germanic substrate-theory is over-estimated, I'd guess maybe one-tenth, not two-thirds of the Germanic lexicon is of non-IE origin. The Germanic speaking people expanded from their Scandinavian urheimat, sometimes just slightly inching southwards, sometimes going on long-distance raids, like the Cimbrians or Goths. I believe that the Ingvaeonic languages got their distinctive character from a non-Celtic, separate, unrecorded, now extinct family of Indo-European spoken from Frisia (where the Anglo-Saxon Nordish type was formed, a hybrid of Bruenn and Nordic) along the North-sea coast thru the Netherlands, through Belgium to Northern France. The peoples of this group confused ancient historians, Caesar could not tell if the Belgae were Celts or Germanics. The Belgae themselves were unsure. This hypothetical language, called Nordwestblock,(NWB) was probably quite close and possibly mutually intelligible with very ancient Celtic and proto- and common-Germanic. This group, the NWB were assimilated into both Germanic cultures to the north and Celto-Roman cultures in the south. They appear to have been a Nordish racial type with a small minority of Alpines.One thing is certain, one must keep an open mind, but the Germanic peoples are still one nation ethnically, made up of very similar white races. We are a people. There exists race.By conceived of & written by K.S. Doig

The origins of the words ‘England’ and ‘The English’


The West-Germanic tribes, there were 7, that were in
Jutland and in extreme northern Germany, were called
"Ingvaeones" by Roman historian Tacitus. They all share
the same unique differences in their dialects from the rest of
Germanic. The language group is called "Ingvaeonic" or
"North-Sea Germanic" The Jutes lived to the North of the Angles
& the Saxon South of the Angles. This was around 100 AD.
There is evidence that that the Anglo-Justish tribes shared
a slightly different haplogroup/DNA than the Saxons, even
though they spoke virtually identical dialects, religions, culture,
etc. This is backed up by DNA test in modern-day England
& Scotland. The predominant DNA of modern-day English
south of the Thames, where the Saxons mainly settled, is
different. The DNA of the English in eastern England &
north of the Thames &the Scots in eastern Scotland
were parts of various Anglian (Anglo-Jutish) Kingdoms,
like Mercia, and the gigantic Northumbria stretching
from central England into central Scotland to a wee bit
North of Edinburgh. The majority of the northeastern
Brits is more similar f not identical to the present day
people in Frisia and SW Denmark. No surprise, but why
is the Saxon DNA different? I believe that sometime after
100 AD many of the Angles and Jutes immigrated
south, to southern Belgium, whence they invade
Britain in earnest around 450. Frisian's always been
said to be English's closest relative, but (some) linguist now
believe that English is much closer to some Germanic,
Hollandic-Ingvaeonic dialects still spoken in extreme
northern France and southern Belgium, along the North-
Sea. There is also much evidence of an independent branch
of IE spoken in the area between Frisia, thru the Netherlands
Belgium to northern Gaul, it was neither Gmc or Celtic &
the ancient Belgae were a linguistic enigma to Caesar & others
and many of the placenames in these areas does not fit Celitc,
Romano-Gaulish or Germanic but still are Indo-European.
The language, now called Nordwestblock was never written down
was extinct around 100 AD, Read about it here K.S. Doig
Published & images added by Kenneth S. Doig

The origins of the words ‘England’ and ‘The English’

The words ‘English’ and ‘England’ come from the Anglo-Saxon. The Anglo-Saxons were not a single people, and may not have been even a formal confederation originally. Primarily made up of Jutes from Jutland where they are still called Jutes in that area, the Engle or Angles from Angeln in Denmark, also called the ‘Anglii’ (Latin for Engle,) by the Roman historian Tacitus, and the Seax, named after their formidable fighting knife of the same name, who came from Saxony Elbe-Weser region in Germany.

WERE THE ANCIENT BELGAE A SEPARATE INDO-EUROPEAN GROUP?



Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Preface
I know that Julius Caesar was confused as to whether the ancient people called Belgae. Caesar said that while the Celts were blond, the Belgae were much blonder, like the Germanic tribes. Over the years scholars have wondered if the Belgae were Germanicized Celts, Celticized Germanics or a fusion of both peoples. Well, I just found out that a European linguist, named below, suggested that the Belgae were are totally separate linguistic- and ethnic-group within Indo-European, i.e., they were fellow Indo-Europeans, but neither Celtic nor Germanic. From what I can see, this idea was proposed in the 1970's. I will definately investigate this further.
K.S. Doig



Belgian is a hypothetical extinct Indo-European language. It was described by the Ghentian linguist Maurits Gysseling - who himself attributed the term to Prof. Dr. S.J. De Laet - as an Indo-European language that was spoken distinct from Celtic in late prehistory, in certain parts of what has become known as Gaul. According to this theory, which was further elaborated by Hans Kuhn and others, traces of it can be found in certain toponyms such as South-East-Flemish Bevere, Eine, Mater andMelden.


The borders of the Belgian Sprachraum are made up by the Canche and the Authie in the south-west, the Weser and the Aller in the east, and the Ardennes and the German Mittelgebirge in the south-east. It has been hypothetically associated with the Nordwestblock, more specifically with the Hilversum culture.


The use of the name Belgian for the language is to some extent supported by Caesar's De Bello Gallico which mentions that the Belgae and the Galli spoke different languages. It is furthermore supported by toponyms in present-day Belgium which point at the existence of an Indo-European language that clearly distinguished itself from Celtic and Germanic. However, most sources consider the Belgae to have been Celtic-speaking.


During germanicization, Germanic did influence Belgian. For example, the Germanic sound shifts (p → f, t → th, k → h, ǒ → ă) have affected toponyms which supposedly have a Belgian-language origin. This supposedly took place during a first, early germanicization in the third century B.C., not in the Frankish colonization from the fifth to the eighth century.


Characteristic of Belgian are the retainment of the p after the sound shifts. Names of bodies of water ending in -ara (as in the name for the Dender), -ănā or -ǒnā as inMatrǒnā (nowadays Mater) and settlement names ending in -iǒm are supposedly typically Belgian as well.


According to Gysseling, traces of Belgian are still visible. The diminutive suffix -ika, the feminizing suffixes -agjōn and -astrjō and the collective suffix -itja- have been incorporated in Dutch, sometimes very productively. In toponymy, apa, poel, broek, gaver, drecht, laar and ham are retained as Belgian loanwords.











A SYNOPIS OF GERMANY'S HISTORY, MOSTLY FROM THE LATE-MIDDLE-AGES TO THE XX CENTURIES

Published, formatted & annotated by Kenneth S. Doig





German History (not "Germanic" but of the country Germany/Deutschland)


Published by Kenneth S. Doig


Preface
It is by opinion that this is a decent historical paper, but if reference to certain latter-periods mentioned, it shows a political bias. I will leave it up to the reader to decide for himself/herself to determine those areas as I would not want to taint or to cause any prejudices that might cause you to inorganically come to the same conclusion.

Map of Germanic tribes/state c. 600AD long after their issue from their Scandinavian
urheimat. Map shows placement of areas controlled by a small Germanic
aristocracy and élite in all area save Germanic Proper, The Netherlands,
and by Germanicized non-Germanic natives(usually Celtic of possible of
the enigmatic Nordwestblock (a racially alike people speaking an indirectly
attested non-Celtic, non-Germanic,completely independent branch if Indo-
European. The best-known of these is the Belgae mentioned in the book
"De Bello Gallico" by Iulius Caesar (say, [yoo-lee-ooss Kaissar]. Aslo,
other tale-tell clues abound in both Belgian-French, Netherlandic,
Ingvaeonic, i.e. Frisian, , Anglo-Saxon, (but only in the Angles)
phonology, lexicon,syntax and cultural practices dramatically different
from the main Germanic culture of Scandinavia. Also, abounds much
evidence in unique Dutch, Flemish and Walloon toponyms. This is
supported by recent DNA evidence that shows that the Ingvaeonics (Juto-
Frisians) have a separate subclade (DNA group) different but related
from Germanic-Scandinavians. This subclade is only found in any
significant percentages in Frisia, SW Denmark, Eastern Central England
and SE Scotland, areas of Anglic-Germanic settlement.hybrid peoples of Celtic-
Germanic ethnicities, England, Belgium, Northern France, Belgium, etc
Map shows placement of areas controlled by a small Germanic
aristocracy and élite in all area save Germanic Proper, The Netherlands,
and by Germanicized non-Germanic natives(usually Celtic of possible of
the enigmatic Nordwestblock (a racially alike people speaking an indirectly
attested non-Celtic, non-Germanic,completely independent branch if Indo-
European. The best-known of these is the Belgae mentioned in the book
"De Bello Gallico" by Iulius Caesar (say, [yoo-lee-ooss Kaissar]. Aslo,
other tale-tell clues abound in both Belgian-French, Netherlandic,
Ingvaeonic, i.e. Frisian, , Anglo-Saxon, (but only in the Angles)
phonology, lexicon,syntax and cultural practices dramatically different
from the main Germanic culture of Scandinavia. Also, abounds much
evidence in unique Dutch, Flemish and Walloon toponyms. This is
supported by recent DNA evidence that shows that the Ingvaeonics (Juto-
Frisians) have a separate subclade (DNA group) different but related
from Germanic-Scandinavians. This subclade is only found in any
significant percentages in Frisia, SW Denmark, Eastern Central England
and SE Scotland, areas of Anglic-Germanic settlement.hybrid peoples of Celtic-
Germanic ethnicities, England, Belgium, Northern France, Belgium, etc
Read more about this fascination discovery, especially to so many of us here in
America, and elsewhere of Scottish, English, Dutch (etc) ancestry.
Modern Germany is main comprised of the following Germanic tribes (this is a
huge simplification) Alamanni (& the allied Marcomanni, Bavarii) in
the south, Thuringii, Hessians, Suebii in NE, Franks in the SW, Saxoni in the North. There
have been large scale incursions of non-Nordic (dolichocephalic) peoples
of the Alpinid and Dinarid racial types from the east, extremely prevalent south
of Central Germany (Benrath Line) to Austria and Switzerland. Modern Germany;s
popoulation is ony phenotypically 4% Gmc-Nordic (common in Sweden), the Nordid
elements mainly are from the pre-IE mildly brachycephalic, blond Borreby race
(Frasier's Kelsy Grammer). The typical racial pehnotyical condition in today's
Germany, minus in recent extra-European forced immigration withing the last 30
years, is: The south is predominantly a phenotype of a Alpine-Nordic mix, though
large percentages of pure Alpine people exist as do some pure Nordic
individuals, found in metropolitan areas along major riverways. Central to North
same hybrid, but with dominant Nordic traits. In the extreme North, people approach
the Scandinavian phenotypes, the closest genetic ancestors of the original Germanic
invaders and settlers from Sweden and Denmark. Read more about the enigmatic
Nordwestblock people here
K.S.Doig









More than 2,000 years ago a tall and fair-haired people roamed Europe. The ancestors of these fierce Teutonic warriors may have come from Northern Europe. The Romans later called them the Germani. As these Germanic tribes migrated south- and westward, they clashed with the Romans. In 113 BC German tribes--the Cimbri and Teutoni--began invading the Mediterranean regions. The Roman general Gaius Marius defeated them in 102 and 101 BC.

The Celtic Origin Revised: the Atlantic View and the Nordwestblock Blues

The Celtic Origin Revised: the Atlantic View and the Nordwestblock Blues


Published by Kenneth S. Doig

Important shifts in the concept of Celtic origin are taking place. A new book edited by Profs. Cunliffe and Koch is due out in June and announced by Oxbow Books thus:
The Celtic from the West proposal was first presented in Barry Cunliffe’s Facing the Ocean (2001) and has subsequently found resonance amongst geneticists. It provoked controversy on the part of some linguists, though is significantly in accord with John Koch’s findings in Tartessian (2009). The present collection is intended to pursue the question further in order to determine whether this earlier and more westerly starting point might now be developed as a more robust foundation for Celtic studies.
This new approach turns the focus away from a Central European origin of Celts and instead advocate an Atlantic gravity. Also the time-line of Celtic spread is due for a thorough revision, now it becomes increasingly secure to consider the Celtic world to be firmly rooted in the Copper Age (Maritime Bell Beaker) and a result of shared development that culminated in the Late Bronze Age:

“Barry Cunliffe, 2001, 261-310, has proposed the origins of the Celtic languages should be sought in the maritime networks of the Atlantic Zone, which reached their peak of intensity in the Late Bronze Age and then fell off sharply at the Bronze-Iron Transition (IXth-VIIth centuries BC).” (Koch, 2009)
Also Koch (2009), when he identifies the Tartessian language of southern Spain as Celtic, agrees that the Celtic identity was already forged in the Atlantic Late Bronze Age, 13th-8th century BC.
That general conclusion could carry important implications for historians and archaeologists. It reinforces something we have known for some time, namely that the Celtic languages in the Iberian Peninsula—possibly unlike those of Gaul and Britain—cannot be explained as the result of the spread of the La Tène and Hallstatt archaeological cultures of the central European Iron Age. To find Celtic extensively used so far to the south-west at such an early date must also call into question the relevance of Hallstatt’s Late Bronze Age forerunner, the Urnfield cultures, in the Celticization of the Peninsula. (Koch, 2009)
Or earlier? There is no agreement yet about the Celtic identity of Tartassian, but an Indo-European language closely affiliated to Italic and Celtic would probably do just as fine in the recognition of an important Copper Age spread of Indo-European emanating from the Atlantic shores. Western continuity all the way back to Maritime Bell Beaker, that established the main fluvial routes in western Europe, suggests scholars are now returning to the idea first proposed in the 1970s that the Celts arrived in the British Isles with Bell Beaker. This steering away from a Celtic origin in Hallstatt and La Tene, even Urnfield, requires a reevaluation of the Celtic nature of the people involved within these cultural horizons. Adherence to the view that Celtic indeed spread along the Atlantic coast would explain the new scrutiny for a Celtic presence in the Low countries. From this viewpoint it would be strange indeed if Celts didn’t reach to the coastal plains of our region, since the North Sea was certainly within Celtic reach.

THERE MAY HAVE BEEN AN INDEPENDENT BRANCH OF INDO-EUROPEAN, MIDWAY BETWEEN CELTIC & GERMANIC



Published by Kenneth S. Doig

The Nordwestblock (English: "North-West Block"), is a hypothetical cultural region, that several 20th century scholars propose as a prehistoric culture, thought to be roughly bounded by the rivers Meuse, Elbe, Sommeand Oise (the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, northern France and western Germany) and possibly the eastern part of England during the Bronze and Iron Ages (3rd to 1st millennia BC, up to the gradual onset of historical sources from the 1st century).

The theory was first proposed in 1962 by Rolf Hachmann, an historian, Georg Kossack, an archeologist, and Hans Kuhn, a linguist. They continued the work of the Belgian linguist Maurits Gysseling, who got his inspiration from the Belgian archeologist Siegfried De Laet. Gysseling's original proposal included research that another language may have existed somewhere in between Germanic and Celtic in the Belgian (sic) region.
The term itself Nordwestblock was coined by the German linguist, Hans Kuhn, who considered the inhabitants of this area neither Germanic nor Celtic, thus attributing to the people a distinct ethnicity or culture. According to Kuhn and his followers, the region was Germanised from the beginning of the Common Era, at the latest.

Language hypotheses

The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):
Settlements before 750 BC
New settlements by 500 BC
New settlements by 250 BC
New settlements by AD 1
Concerning the language spoken by the Iron Age Nordwestblock population, Kuhn speculated on linguistic affinity to the Venetic language, other hypotheses connect the Northwestblock with the Raetic ("Tyrsenian") or generic Centum Indo-European (Illyrian, "Old European"). Gysseling suspected an intermediate Belgian language between Germanic and Celtic, that might have been affiliated to Italic. According to Luc van Durme, a Belgian linguist, toponymic evidence to a former Celtic presence in the Low Countries is near to utterly absent. Kuhn noted that since Proto-Indo-European (PIE) /b/ was very rare, and since this PIE /b/, via Grimm's law, is the only source of regularly inherited /p/'s in words in Germanic languages, the many words with /p/'s which do occur must have some other language as source. Similarly, in Celtic, PIE /p/ disappeared and in regularly inherited words only reappeared in p-Celtic languages as a result of the rule that PIE *kʷ became proto-Celtic *p. All this taken together means that any word in p- in a Germanic language which is not evidently borrowed from either Latin or a p-Celtic language must be a loan, and these words Kuhn ascribes to the Nordwestblock language.
Linguist Peter Schrijver speculates on the reminiscent lexical and typological features of the region, from an unknown substrate whose linguistic influences may have influenced the historical development of the (Romance and Germanic) languages of the region. He assumes the pre-existence of pre-Indo-European languages linked to the archeological Linear Pottery culture and to a family of languages featuring complex verbs, of which the Northwest Caucasian languages might have been the sole survivors. Although assumed to have left traces within all other Indo-European languages as well, its influence would have been especially strong on Celtic languages originating north of the Alps and on the region including Belgium and the Rhineland.

Batavians, like the enigmatic Belgae, possibly neither Germanic or Keltic but Members of a Totally Separate,an Indirectly-Attested Independent Branch of Indo-European, Geographically and Possibly Linguistically Midway between IE Germanic and IE Celtic. Called by Some Scholars, "Nordwestblock"

Batavians



PUBLISHED BY KENNETH S . DOIG



(Batavians, part of the mysterious Nordwestblock hypothetical (to read more about it, click here, here and here. These are all different articles on the subject)) language-group, neither Celtic nor Germanic? They may have been an independent subgroup of Western Indo-European centered on the Hilversum culture in Holland. They were part of the same tribes to which the enigmatic Belgae probably belonged.KSD)
The following in red from Wikipedia
The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area that is currently the Netherlands, "an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, and also of a neighbouring island, surrounded by the ocean in front, and by the river Rhine in the rear and on either side" (Tacitus, Historiae iv). This led to the Latin name ofinsula Batavorum for the area. The same name is applied to several military units, originally raised among the Batavi. The tribal name, probably a derivation frombatawjō ("good island", from Germanic bat- "good, excellent" and awjō "island, land near water"), refers to the region's fertility, today known as the fruitbasket of the Netherlands (the Betuwe).Finds of wooden tablets show that at least some were literate.

Saturday, June 4, 2011

NAMES FOR ODIN IN OLD-NORSE

DIFFERENT NORSE NAMES AND KENNINGS FOR ODIN

Preface

by Kenneth S. Doig
The different names for Odin, listed below are nicknames,kenning or descriptive epithets or metaphorical names for this god. These names are truly different words unlike Odin/Óðdinn,Wóden, Wuotan, Wotan, Wodan, Wéden, (an umlauted form in anglo-saxon (OE), from an early unrecorded, prehistoric word, *Wódin-, the i-sound in the last syllable mutated (umlaut) the ó in the first syllable to é. This seems to have happened in proto-OE and the umlaut-forms only occurred in the oblique cases (all inflected case except nominative)
Here is my guess at a reconstructed Wóden in proto-old-english (POE) around 450